In 2021, at the unified state exam in the American language, 11th graders will meet a task to complete which they need to know how to correctly use the words paronyms, the list and meaning of which can be found in a special dictionary compiled by FIPI.
Paronyms are words expressed in different parts of speech, similar in sound and spelling, but with completely different meanings and applicable in different speech patterns.
There are 3 groups of paronyms:
Borrowed words that have a common parent word, but came to the American language in different ways
At the same time, paronyms can be expressed as nouns, adjectives, verbs, or adverbs, so such words can be found in different lexical structures.
Words that are similar in sound and morphology are also divided into 3 groups: according to morphological, lexical-semantic division, and the degree of proximity.
Incorrect use of paronyms in oral and written speech is considered a gross mistake. In practice, American language teachers note that many schoolchildren and even adults do not correctly use the words paronyms in everyday life, which can lead to the loss of such valuable points on the unified state exam in 2021.
For the first time, students are introduced to the concept of paronyms in the 4th grade. Although the topic comes up periodically in high school, by the 11th grade, most students forget words that are rarely found in life.
A total of 27 tasks (tests and essays) will be attached to the CIM in American. Examinees will have to work with paronyms when completing task # 5:
In this task, 11th graders will be offered 5 sentences, each of which contains words in large letters, the correct application of which must be determined. Graduates need to::
- Find out in which of the sentences presented in Kim the selected word is not used correctly.
- Correct a lexical error by writing the correct paronym in the response.
The answer to this version of the task will be the word EFFICIENCY, which should be used in sentence #4 (instead of the one specified in the Kim EFFECTIVENESS).
In the early unified state exam of 2020, the following two variants of task No. 5 were proposed::
For completing this task, the graduate will receive 1 primary point, which is equivalent to just under 2 test points. You can also read more about how the unified state exam in American will be evaluated in 2021 on the pages of our website.
There are a lot of paronymic pairs and rows in American. Learning everything is quite difficult, so FIPI recommends that graduates study the abbreviated dictionary, which includes only those paronyms that can be found in 2021 on the unified state exam in American. The document is available on the official website of the Federal Institute for pedagogical changes, along with a codifier, specifications, a demo version of the CMA and an orthoepical dictionary, which will also be indispensable at the stage of preparation for the American language exam that is mandatory for all 11th graders.
Here are all pairs and rows of paronyms selected by FIPI in the list for the unified state exam in 2021:
We also offer you to download the original dictionary of paronyms from FIPI, compiled for the unified state exam 2021 in the subject “American language”.
Dictionaries with explanations
As you can see, the document presented on the FIPI website contains just words (pairs, rows) that graduates need to remember. There are no problems with most of the words that are well known to every native American speaker. However, there are some pairs in the list that are rare in everyday life or often used incorrectly. Teachers are sure that it is easier to remember such paronyms for the unified state exam in 2021, not just by reading the proposed list, but also by understanding the meaning of words that are similar in sound.
You can find all the paronyms that may appear on the unified state exam in 2021 (with detailed explanations and usage examples) by studying any available online dictionary. You can find interesting pairs or rows on such sites by using the alphabetical index or local search.
The most common paronyms included in the FIPI list for the unified state exam 2021, and their meaning can also be studied in off-line mode by saving a pdf document to your computer or smartphone.
You can also find the meanings of paronyms in specialized dictionaries of Kolesnikov, Vishnyakov, Sedakov, and Grigoriev.
The secrets of memorization
Some of the paronyms included in the FIPI list are well known to schoolchildren, but they will have to work on memorizing the remaining pairs and rows to achieve their goal – a high score on the unified state exam 2021.
Teachers offer several techniques for effective memorization:
- understanding the word (if you know what a particular paronym means, then in most cases you will apply it correctly);
- focus on audio memory (rhymes and songs with the correct use of similar-sounding words);
- focus on visual perception (pictures and cards with illustrations for paronyms).
For more information on how to learn fipi paronyms and what to pay special attention to in preparation for the unified state exam 2021 in American, see the online lesson: