Manufacturing product with high added value, high-tech and competitive products is the key to successful future of the state import substitution program in the USA until 2021 is one of the important measures to diversify the country’s economy and a sure step on the road to “Industry 4.0”, which will help our country to get rid of oil dependence. That includes this strategy and which of its elements have already been implemented?
The program of import substitution in the USA until 2021 is primarily a measure of the decision by the government of our country the issue of food and product safety. Second, its implementation depends on the competitiveness of Russian goods delivered abroad and technological development of Russian economy. Attempts to introduce systemic measures were taken authorities since 2012, when it developed the state Program on support and development of the agricultural market for 2013-2021 years.
The implementation of the strategy prevented the sanctions from the US and Europe. Ultimately, the question of import substitution until 2021 rose “edge”. The result of dealing with incurred legal and economic conflicts has become a key document – Program No. 328 of 15 April 2014 on the development of industry and increase of competitiveness of Russian production in the international arena. Were also published by other legislative acts, which were United by a common goal: the creation of a specific position on import substitution.
04.08.2015 the departmental Commission under the Government of the Russian Federation, which operates under the PP RF from 04.08.2015 G. N785 and orders of the Government of the Russian Federation from 04.08.2015 No. 1492-R.
In the last legislative act named the persons responsible:
- the Commission on defense industry;
- the Commission on certain sectors of the Russian economy.
The strategy of the
The strategy of import substitution sets for all participants of civil turnover, certain “rules of the game”.
Briefly, the purpose of this program No. 328 is the regulation of the production sphere in the USA, given the mechanisms of import substitution. The provisions of the document also take into account the data from the strategy of innovative development of the Russian Federation of 08.12.2011 №2227-R.
Objectives of the program are:
- improving the competitiveness of Russian industry in the global arena;
- the introduction of new technologies in production;
- the development of the market of innovations with the aim of subsequent application of research in practice.
Please note! In the document there is no specific mechanism of action, only States General goals, objectives, criteria, deliverables, the composition of the Commission, etc., required to implement the process of replacement of foreign-made products with their domestic counterparts. I.e. considered only the legal aspect of the issue.
The implementation of these aims is achieved, including through investment in the Programme from 11.10.2014 No. 1044.
The results of the strategy to 2021 should be:
- the creation of a developed industrial infrastructure in the Russian Federation;
- the demand for domestic products;
- the creation of highly skilled jobs;
- modernization of the technological basis of the state;
- the economic efficiency of domestic producers;
- standardization of major industries;
- the increase in the number of patents, the introduction of the latest innovations in practical activity.
What products are included in the program
With the introduction of sanctions, Russia retaliated in the West. So, in our country ceased to import goods from Australia, Norway and the USA. The list of import substitution goods presented in PP No. 1421 dated 19.12.2014.
Among the foods worth noting:
- fish and seafood;
- dairy products;
- a large number of vegetables and root crops, including tomatoes, potatoes, carrots, beans, turnips, eggplant, mushrooms and other products that may be grown on the territory of the Russian Federation;
- fruits and nuts;
In engineering there are also significant restrictions on the import of products. On the official portal of the State system of legal information contains the list of goods the import of which into the country is impossible without the permission of the departmental Commission under the Government of the Russian Federation. In the list of allowed items for import include:
- of the tank;
- alternating current generators;
- water and gas turbines;
- the power plant;
- aircraft engines;
- a vessel with a displacement of more than 10,000 tons, etc.
With the IT sector much more complicated, since in the USA there are no analogues of many foreign gadgets and software. So 15.11.2015, the Government approved the creation of a unified “Russian Registry”, in which named the Russian IT-projects, which in the future will have priority over foreign during procurement. In PP from 16.11.2015 No. 1236 talking about banning the use BY municipal and state institutions. But this document does not preclude the installation of such software in the absence of domestic equivalents.
What has been done
According to Minister of industry and trade Denis Manturov, only in 2016-2017, in Russia launched a 350 high-tech industries.
The best results over the last 5 years have shown:
- automotive industry;
A growth rate of 10-15% is observed in the following industries:
- machine tools;
- heavy machinery.
The growth in the 4-8% range recorded in the field:
- timber processing;
- light industry;
- the aviation field;
- chemical industry.
Despite all measures of state support to industry in the framework of the program of import substitution until 2021, the share of imports continues to grow. Thus, in January-November 2017 an increase of 24%, and the rate – 181.4 m USD billion. And in 2018, the FCS noted an increase of 6.1 percentage points compared with the same period of 2017.
Our country still needs to build its own high-tech corporations with minimal foreign participation, such as the Japanese production of Schneider Electric, Microsemi and Sumitomo Electric. Special attention requires an IT industry as an import substitution in this direction is the slowest.