Potato yield depends on many factors: the quality of seed material and its preparation, soil fertility, weather conditions, planting time, care during the growing season. If you plant potatoes in the warm ground, taking into account weather conditions and choosing a favorable time according to the lunar calendar of 2021, then the shoots will appear on time. If the tubers lie in the cold ground for a long time, then the growing season will come late, and the crop will ripen later.
The plot for potatoes is chosen in advance, taking into account the rules of crop rotation, which largely affect the yield. In order not to forget what grew and where, plantings begin to be planned until all the plants are removed – so it’s easier to make a plan.
Features of crop rotation for potatoes:
- since potatoes occupy the largest area on a small plot, it is not possible to change the place every year – it is recommended to update the varieties every 3-4 years;
- it is good to plant root vegetables after onions, garlic, corn, other root vegetables, cruciferous, pumpkin (cucumber, zucchini, watermelon, melon), legumes, cereals, green manure;
- after Solanaceae (for example, tomatoes, peppers), with which potatoes have common diseases and pests, it is impossible to plant it.
Site and soil selection and preparation
For tubers, stagnation of moisture is harmful, so for potatoes, a flat place without slopes is suitable, where water does not accumulate after snow and precipitation melt. A plot in a lowland with a high groundwater table is not suitable.
In the shade, tubers develop poorly, grow small and tasteless, so choose an open, Sunny place, away from buildings and trees.
In order for the root crop to develop, it needs oxygen, nutrients, and moisture. All these requirements are met by light, loose loamy and sandy loam lands. In heavy clay dense soil, oxygen supply to the roots is difficult, there are fewer nutrients, so the tuber pulp becomes dense, not juicy.
It is better to prepare the plot in the fall to save time for spring work. To do this, it is dug to the depth of the bayonet of a shovel, removing plant remains, roots, weeds and fertilizing:
- 25 g of potassium sulfate, 20 g of superphosphate, 30 g of urea per 1 m2 of area or 20 g/1 m2 of nitroammophoska;
- humus, compost – 10 l/1 m2.
In the spring, it will only be necessary to loosen the soil a week before planting, level it out and add nitroammofosk (4 g) or potassium sulfate and superphosphate (3 g each) to each hole (furrow). Potatoes like the combination of mineral and organic fertilizers, so you can add 50 g of wood ash, a handful of onion husks, humus, compost.
It is impossible to determine the date of planting potatoes in advance – it depends on weather conditions. If the spring is long, then the soil will thaw later, but if the spring is early, then recurrent frosts are likely, and the sprouts of early-planted potatoes may catch frost. A preliminary weather forecast and sowing calendar will help you roughly determine when to plant potatoes in 2021.
The signal to start planting is the state of the soil. Since the tuber contains a lot of moisture, it makes no sense to plant it in frozen and cold ground – the processes occurring in the tissues will stop. You need to start planting when the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms up to 6-8 °C in the southern regions, in colder climates-up to 10-12 °C, and the daytime temperature will stay around 15-18 °C. In addition, the moisture will not have time to evaporate and the soil is still wet.
If there is not enough moisture, then the depth of embedding is less than usual (8-12 cm) and will be only 5-6 cm, in heavy soils it is better to plant on ridges, 6-8 cm high.
Folk signs that indicate the readiness of nature for planting potatoes:
- the cherry blossom is falling off (usually flowering occurs in the coldest period of may);
- on a birch tree, the leaf reached the size of a penny coin;
- the dandelion formed a ball with seeds.
According to the lunar calendar
According to the lunar sowing calendar, it is recommended to plant root vegetables and bulbs on the waning moon, when all liquids rush down. At this time, it is good to introduce organic matter, feed plants, weed, and destroy pests. You should not expect a complete coincidence of weather conditions and favorable days, but you can choose a landing day.
Potato planting calendar in 2021:
|A month||Favorable days||Unfavorable days|
|April||1-5, 8-11, 28-30||6,7, 12, 13-26, 27|
|May||1,2, 5-10, 27-29||3, 4, 11-26, 30,31|
The table of favorable days shows the period of the waning moon. the unfavorable period includes the days of the new Moon, full Moon, growth of the moon and its location in the sign of Aquarius (barren sign). In June, you can plant after the 10th day only where the tubers of early varieties will have time to ripen before the cold weather. Landing days fall at the end of the month.
The weather in America’s climate zones differs significantly. If in some southern regions it is possible to plant potatoes in early April, then in cold climates they start planting in mid or late may. There are no stable deadlines for this – they change annually.
- southern regions-April;
- Srednyaya Strelka, New-York and the region – I-II decade of may;
- St. Petersburg and the region-II-III decade of may;
- Northern regions of the Urals and Siberia – II-III decade of may-I decade of June, in the southern regions-I-II decade of may.
Varieties and terms
To get fresh new potatoes for consumption in the summer season, plant early varieties, store varieties of medium and late maturation. When calculating the planting date, the growing season should also be taken into account – for different varieties, it takes from 40 to 140 days.
Varieties by maturation period:
- ultra-early – 40-55 days;
- early ripening-60-80 days;
- mid-early – 80-90 days;
- medium-ripened-90-100 days;
- mid-late-100-120 days;
- late-120-140 days.
Planting potatoes in 2021 will be successful if you choose the right planting day, focusing on the climate of the area, and prepare the site and seed material in a timely manner.
Planting potatoes on green grass and without hoeing:video