The yield of tomatoes depends on many factors, but any experienced gardener considers the time of sowing seeds to be one of the decisive ones. To determine the time of planting tomatoes for seedlings and greenhouses in 2021, it is necessary to take into account such points as agronomic recommendations, dates in accordance with the lunar calendar of agricultural work, and selected varieties.
Experts give clear recommendations about the time when it is necessary to start planting tomato seed material. It is easy to calculate the time yourself, based on the following data::
- from the moment of sowing to the appearance of the first seedlings, approximately 7-8 days pass;
- by the time of transplanting seedlings to a permanent place, its age should be at least two months (60 days).
Since seedlings are planted in the greenhouse earlier than in the open ground, they first start sowing greenhouse material. This happens in the middle or at the end of February. Earlier planting is possible only in cases when seedlings are grown using a large amount of additional light, since natural light in early February will not be enough for the full formation of bushes. The same requirement applies to the greenhouse itself, if planting seedlings is planned earlier than in April. Plus, a system for heating the ground in the greenhouse should be thought out.
For the preparation of open ground planting material, sowing begins a little later – in mid-late March or early April. This is due to the fact that transplanting into the open ground occurs later than in the greenhouse, since the ground warms up more slowly.
It is necessary to allocate such terms of planting tomato seeds for seedlings:
- to the greenhouse-mid-late February;
- in the open ground – mid-March-early April.
Adjustment by variety
In addition to General data on seedlings, it is necessary to take into account the terms of harvesting provided for by varietal characteristics. Seedlings for different groups are planted at different ages:
- late varieties – 70 days;
- the average maturity is 55-60 days;
- early and super-early – 45-50 days.
The age is taken into account not from the moment of planting, but from the moment of emergence.
In addition to the generally accepted dates, agronomists recommend taking into account the data of the lunar sowing calendar. It helps to grow tomatoes in accordance with the phases of the moon, which affect the processes occurring in plants.
Based on this data, select such favorable days for landing:
|February 5, 8, 9||Soaking of seeds|
|February 12, 13, 14||Sowing, watering and transplanting|
|February 16, 17||Sowing, fertilizing with fertilizers in low concentration|
|February 18, 19||Sowing, fertilizing, watering|
|February 20, 21||Picking, watering|
|February 25, 26||Picking, watering|
Unfavorable dates for planting tomato seedlings– 1, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 27 February.
|March 2, 3||Soaking seeds, picking, watering, fertilizing with mineral complexes|
|March 4||Landing, transfer|
|March 5||Soaking of planting material, picking|
|March 7, 8||Picking, watering|
|March 17, 18, 19, 23||Sowing, transplanting|
|March 26, 27, 28||Picking, fertilization|
|March 30, 31||Pickaxe|
Unfavorable days for planting tomatoes are March 1, 5, 9, and 28.
|April 1, 3, 5||Picking, fertilization|
|April 8, 9||Preparation of planting material, watering|
|April 13, 14, 15||Seeding|
|April 16, 17||Picking, watering, fertilizing|
|April 24, 25, 26||Transplanting, watering|
Unfavorable days for planting tomatoes are April 10, 11, and 12.
How to sow tomatoes
To increase the germination rate of tomatoes, it is necessary to soak the planting material. To do this, the seeds are dipped in warm water and left to swell for several hours. To protect seedlings from fungal diseases, after soaking it is possible to conduct etching with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
You can pre-germinate the seed material – this will speed up the time of obtaining seedlings. To do this, the seeds are placed in a warm place, placing them on wet cotton wool or gauze. It is important to avoid drying out by adding a little water as needed. As soon as the first signs of germination appear, sowing is urgently carried out.
For growing tomatoes, a nutritious soil with a sufficient amount of organic matter is suitable. You can buy a ready-made substrate in a flower shop. You should choose a suitable container. These can be individual pots, including peat pots, flower pots, or cassettes.
Previously, the soil is moistened, and then depressions are made in it with a wooden stick (0.5-1 cm). 2 seeds are placed in each well. They are sprinkled with soil on top and moistened. Moistening before germination is best done with a spray gun, so as not to wash out the ground with a stream of water.
After that, the container is hermetically sealed with a transparent film. Before germination, seedlings are placed in a warm place, where a significant amount of light enters. The temperature before the appearance of seedlings should be in the range of 22-26°C, and after the appearance of the first sprouts, it is reduced to 18°C. If necessary, the tomatoes dosvechivat the fitolamp or fluorescent lamps. Daylight hours should be 11-12 hours. Often, the lengthening of the main shoot is considered a guideline for lack of light, but at this stage it is extremely difficult to restore the normal structure of the bushes without losing quality and reducing productivity in the future. For this reason, additional lighting should be considered in advance.
Throughout the entire cultivation of seedlings, it is necessary to control the moisture content of the soil, preventing waterlogging or severe drying of the earth. If fertile land was used for sowing, then during the first month of fertilizing, you can not carry out: there are enough nutrients in the substrate for this time to develop high-quality plants.
Experienced gardeners prefer to grow pickled tomatoes: this allows you to achieve a thickening of the stem, the formation of a powerful root system, the appearance of a large number of full-fledged shoots and the collection of a good harvest. When picking, 1/3 of the root is pinched.
Ready for transfer
There are a number of signs that judge the readiness of seedlings for planting in the greenhouse or in the garden beds:
- the presence of a strong thick main shoot;
- no yellow or dry leaves;
- 7-12-developed leaves;
- it is possible to have buds of varying degrees of maturity – ovaries and ready-to-bloom buds;
- the volume of foliage should be greater than the volume of the stem;
- no spots or deformations on the leaf blades.
All tomato seedlings that do not meet these requirements are rejected and cannot be planted.