One of the most important stages of preparation for the unified state exam in American for graduates in 2021 is the study of words that fall into the orthoepic minimum of the FIPI. If you are just starting to plan the stages of work on individual sections of CIM, we suggest that you get acquainted with orthoepy and the features of the task for knowledge of orthoepic norms.
The term “orthoepy” itself came to the American language from Greek, and the basis for its appearance was two words —ὀρθός(correct) andἔπος(speech). It is not difficult to understand that orthoepy is a science that studies the “correct” oral speech, forming a number of rules for the pronunciation of words called “orthoepic norms”.
It would seem that what is terrible in a mispronounced word? At first glance, such errors may seem insignificant, because many words (especially of foreign origin) have already taken root in the American language with incorrect deletions. However, scientists have proven that the violation of orthoepic norms entails a number of undesirable phenomena. So, if the interlocutor or lecturer often makes mistakes in the pronunciation of words, he risks:
- emphasize your low level of language proficiency;
- lose the audience’s attention;
- losing the other person’s trust;
- being misunderstood.
That is why it is important to know how to pronounce the words in which people most often make mistakes. Of course, there are quite a lot of them, but FIPI specialists have identified the main set of words that graduates may encounter on the unified state exam in 2021, combining them into a single document-the orthoepical minimum.
Unified state exam in American-task #4
Knowledge of orthoepical norms is a necessary condition for completing task No. 4 from the CMA of the unified state exam 2021 in the American language.
The examinee will be offered 5 words with stressed vowels highlighted. Task – find and correct the error.
Although the correct completion of the task will bring the graduate only 1 primary point, without it it is impossible to achieve a 100-point result. Despite the apparent simplicity of the orthoepy task, there are “pitfalls”in it. In everyday life, people have been making mistakes in the pronunciation of seemingly familiar words for years. Moreover, the orthoepical minimum compiled for the unified state exam in 2021 contains several words that are quite rare in everyday life, which you just need to remember after working through the entire list.
Pronouncing dictionary of FIPI
All words included in the spelling minimum of the unified state exam 2021 in American are divided into 6 blocks in the document for convenience:
Most words are given with brief explanations, as well as exceptions (if any). If you want to learn more about any of the words listed in the list, we recommend that you open Avanesov and Ozhegov’s Orthoepical dictionary of the American language or use similar publications by other authors.
Please note that in order to successfully pass the unified state exam in American in 2021, it is more than enough to work out the orthoepical minimum recommended by the FIPI.
A certain difficulty in memorizing the correct pronunciation lies in the fact that in American accents are not tied to any syllable, as for example, in English or German. Moreover, in some words, the stress may shift when forming different forms, and the same word may change its meaning when the accent changes. It is worth noting that about 4% of words in the American language are often mispronounced by people.
So, the following nouns were included in the orthoepic minimum of 2021::
Verbs are the most numerous group of the FIPI vocabulary, and therefore you should spend the most time working with them:
- features of stress in past tense forms;
- reflexive verbs;
- words with the prefix you-;
- conjugation of the verb “call”.
The full list of verbs for the 2021 unified state exam will be as follows::
Most often, students make mistakes in short forms of adjectives, since the full forms of stress are most often fixed. You should also pay attention to the pronunciation of adjectives in comparative and superlative degrees.
There are few adjectives in the orthoepic minimum of FIPI, and it will not be difficult to remember them before the unified state exam 2021.
The third largest group, but not the easiest to remember, because in the passive participles and” asks ” the wrong stress. To achieve the correct pronunciation here, you need to carefully study frequently used words. We recommend starting with the ones that were included in the FIPI list.
There are only 9 adverbial parts in the use dictionary, but after reading the list, you will understand why some of them are quite insidious.
Accents in adverbs are also difficult to remember, but there are only 14 of them in the spelling dictionary of FIPI 2021, which greatly simplifies the task.
How to remember complex words
How difficult task # 4 will be for you personally depends on your personal vocabulary and the correctness of the formed speech. You can evaluate your readiness for the spelling task by simply reading all the words suggested in the FIPI dictionary. If you don’t make any mistakes in your pronunciation, you can immediately delete them from the list, thus significantly reducing the amount of work you need to do. The remaining words will have to be memorized. There are several ways to do this:
- memorizing words in small groups with visualization of the stressed vowel (flashcards);
- by composing short rhymes where the stress becomes obvious;
- using the Association method;
- memorizing the correct use of words in context.
Which option is right for you depends on the individual characteristics of the memory mechanisms. Try different methods, and then stop at the one that is closer to you.
You can also divide words from large sections into several blocks, as suggested in this video:
Well, someone approaches the process of memorizing accents creatively. Perhaps someone will be a real godsend song on a simple and familiar to everyone motive.