Traditionally, the peak consumption of garlic falls in the winter months, because the vegetable crop, which would have so many useful trace elements, vitamins and phytoncides, can no longer be found. But even in the warm season, this vegetable is used in cooking of all kinds, except, perhaps, desserts. Therefore, it is necessary to plan the planting of this crop in advance. In 2021, the principles of growing garlic will remain classic, but in order to get the maximum yield, you will need to check the weather forecast, the sowing calendar, and learn the basic rules for planting and growing.
Planting for winter
This type of sowing is considered easier, so it is suitable for novice gardeners. It is important to know that all varieties of garlic are divided into two categories: winter and spring. It is impossible not to attach importance to this, since when planting a spring variety for the winter, the gardener risks not getting a harvest or getting it on a small scale, which will not pay for the material and moral costs of growing.
It is winter varieties that are cultivated on an industrial scale. They differ in appearance: the teeth are large, they are uniform in size and shape, so they sell better. As a rule, they contain more essential oils, so the taste and smell are very rich.
You should know that garlic is resistant to frost. Some varieties can easily tolerate a drop in temperature to -22°, so they are successfully grown in temperate and even Northern climates.
In order for winter sowing to be successful, you should adhere to such rules that allow agronomists to get good harvests for many years in a row:
- Usually, planting starts in mid-September-early October, but if we are talking about the southern regions, then the dates are shifted to the second half of October-early November.
- The reference point should be the air temperature, which for winter varieties is +15°C. Such indicators contribute to rapid adaptation, good rooting and resistance against fungal diseases.
- Winter garlic perfectly winters under a large snow cover. If weather forecasters promise a windy and snowless winter, then the emphasis should be placed on spring planting.
- It is important to pay attention to the seed material. It must be free of signs of rot or mildew, smooth, without stains or mechanical damage.
- Ideally, if the first frost occurs 3-4 weeks after sowing. It is this interval that is necessary for garlic to take root normally, but not yet go into active growth.
An important point is where to choose a landing site. It is not recommended to plant garlic in the same place where it grew last year, since specific pathogens that affect this crop may remain in the ground. It is undesirable to use onion or strawberry beds for this purpose, as they have a number of similar diseases. To ensure a high yield, experienced gardeners are advised to process the planting material with special tools that can be purchased in horticultural stores.
For many decades, gardeners use the sowing calendar, which shows the most favorable dates for planting and other agricultural work in accordance with the lunar cycles. It is believed that the phase of the moon starts some processes in the plant and suspends others. Skilfully using these data, you can get the maximum yield.
It is very easy to find the lunar calendar on the Internet, but when it comes to planting garlic, you need to take into account one feature: data for land plants and root crops are treated differently, since vegetative and root structures develop in them with features inherent in the species.
Ground vegetables are recommended to be sown in the waxing moon phase, but for garlic, the ideal time is the waning phase. It is then that rooting occurs best, the immune mechanisms of the culture are strengthened and the risk of fungal diseases is reduced.
There is another subtlety that you need to know when orienting in the planting calendar: if you sow a few days before the full moon, the garlic cloves will take a more elongated shape, and when planting a few days before the new moon, the head will grow as wide as possible, becoming massive.
|A month||Favorable days||Unfavorable days|
|September||September 1, 2,3, 24, 25, 29 and 30||September 5, 6 and 22|
|October||October 23, 25, 26 and 27||October 1, 2, and 14|
|November||2, 3, 21, 23, 24, 28 and November 30||November 5, 10, 11, 15, 16 and 25|
Planting in the spring
Spring sowing in 2021 is planned by those who want to be safe and get a crop guarantee. If winter varieties planted in the previous autumn do not give the expected result, then this type, used in regions with any climate, will allow you to Supplement the diet during the next season.
For this purpose, spring varieties are selected, despite the fact that they are less resistant to fungi and garden pests. Care and cultivation are more painstaking, but these varieties do not give arrows that need to be periodically cut off.
Spring varieties have more teeth in the head, which helps to distinguish them from winter varieties.
For good cultivation, you need to follow these rules::
- Before spring sowing, it is necessary to place the planting material in a cool place for four weeks.
- Sowing is carried out during the warming period after the winter cold. It is necessary to focus on the temperature of the outside air. Values +5-+6°C is considered optimal.
- The soil after winter contains a lot of nutrients, trace elements and nitrogen, so additional fertilizing is not necessary. Excess nitrogen even harms this crop, as it makes the greens actively grow to the detriment of the accumulation of nutrients in the heads.
|A month||Favorable days||Unfavorable days|
|April||April 1, 3, 5, 8, 9 and 28||April 10, 11, 12|
|May||May 2, 5, 6 and 28||May 11, 19 and 30|
Deadlines and cleaning tips
In order for the garlic crop to be preserved without loss, it must be dug out on time and correctly.
For winter varieties, harvesting occurs in the first or second decade of July and continues until the first days of August. First of all, it is necessary to focus on whether the early-maturing, mid-maturing or late variety was planted.
Before digging, you need to properly prepare the garlic:
- In recent weeks, watering has been significantly reduced.
- In a week – watering is stopped completely.
- A decade before harvesting, it is recommended to pick all the yellow leaves.
- It is better to eliminate the arrows in advance, so that the vital forces do not go to the maturation of seeds.
To determine if the garlic is ready for digging, you need to pay attention to the lower leaves: they should start to dry out. This means that the active vegetative season of the plant has already ended, and it is ready to retire.
If you delay harvesting, the heads will start to crack in the ground, will be divided into separate heads. This will worsen their shelf life.